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“Whilst biased guessing may account for the misinformation effect that occurs in some instances (refs.), research suggests that it is not the only reason for the occurrence of the misinformation effect. This suggests that the misinformation effect may be due at least partially to memory impairment, rather than just biased guessing.” 5.
Second are the reviews of those studies that summarize and offer new interpretations built from and often extending beyond the primary studies.Methodological Review A review does not always focus on what someone said [findings], but how they came about saying what they say [method of analysis].Reviewing methods of analysis provides a framework of understanding at different levels [i.e.“ on collaborative memory is that the memory of groups is compared with that of individuals. group performance should not be compared with individual performance but rather with ‘nominal groups’ comprised of pooled, non-redundant data from the same number of people tested individually.” 8. Most research involving the Experimentally Induced Information methodology seeks to identify the influence of misinformation presented by one witness to another, and therefore the assumption is made that discussion between witnesses is a detrimental process. “While the misinformation effect is a well-established phenomenon, ‘what remains in dispute is the nature of a satisfactory theoretical explanation’ (ref.). Therefore, in order to understand why memory conformity occurs, we must draw from both cognitive research on memory and social research on conformity.In this section, relevant cognitive and social theories are discussed in order to (1) explain the occurrence of memory conformity and (2) describe factors that influence memory conformity.” 3.Because such ‘contamination’ is common to memory, understanding its effects enables greater knowledge of memory itself (ref.). Discusses one key paper at a time by describing its methods and key findings, but then identifies weaknesses in the method and/or limitations in the findings.Then discusses how the next researchers tried to address these problems.those of theory, substantive fields, research approaches, and data collection and analysis techniques], how researchers draw upon a wide variety of knowledge ranging from the conceptual level to practical documents for use in fieldwork in the areas of ontological and epistemological consideration, quantitative and qualitative integration, sampling, interviewing, data collection, and data analysis.This approach helps highlight ethical issues which you should be aware of and consider as you go through your own study.Identifies which explanations are likely to be valid in explaining the results of experiments conducted for this thesis. “Whist it has been shown that in some circumstances many people tend to conform to the opinions of others, we also know that some people are able to resist conforming in some situations. This section of the literature review examines factors influencing whether or not a person is likely to conform that are (1) in the situation, and (2) within the individual.” 8.A literature review surveys books, scholarly articles, and any other sources relevant to a particular issue, area of research, or theory, and by so doing, provides a description, summary, and critical evaluation of these works in relation to the research problem being investigated.