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The practice of using hypotheses was derived from using the scientific method in social science inquiry.They have philosophical advantages in statistical testing, as researchers should be and tend to be conservative and cautious in their statements of conclusions (Armstrong, 1974).a no difference form in terms of theoretical constructs.In such cases, reviewers and/or committee members will have difficulty recognizing the problem.
It is a key element that associations such as AERA and APA look for in proposals.
It is essential in all quantitative research and much qualitative research.
A research question poses a relationship between two or more variables but phrases the relationship as a question; a hypothesis represents a declarative statement of the relations between two or more variables (Kerlinger, 1979; Krathwohl, 1988).
Deciding whether to use questions or hypotheses depends on factors such as the purpose of the study, the nature of the design and methodology, and the audience of the research (at times even the taste and preference of committee members, particularly the Chair).
When a writer states hypotheses, the reader is entitled to have an exposition of the theory that led to them (and of the assumptions underlying the theory).
Just as conclusions must be grounded in the data, hypotheses must be grounded in the theoretical framework.In studies aiming at grounded theory, for example, theory and theoretical tenets emerge from findings.Much qualitative inquiry, however, also aims to test or verify theory, hence in these cases the theoretical framework, as in quantitative efforts, should be identified and discussed early on.It is important in a proposal that the problem stand outthat the reader can easily recognize it.Sometimes, obscure and poorly formulated problems are masked in an extended discussion.In quantitative studies, one uses theory deductively and places it toward the beginning of the plan for a study. One thus begins the study advancing a theory, collects data to test it, and reflects on whether the theory was confirmed or disconfirmed by the results in the study.The theory becomes a framework for the entire study, an organizing model for the research questions or hypotheses for the data collection procedure (Creswell, 1994, pp. In qualitative inquiry, the use of theory and of a line of inquiry depends on the nature of the investigation.Effective problem statements answer the question Why does this research need to be conducted.If a researcher is unable to answer this question clearly and succinctly, and without resorting to hyperspeaking (i.e., focusing on problems of macro or global proportions that certainly will not be informed or alleviated by the study), then the statement of the problem will come off as ambiguous and diffuse.Some committee Chairs prefer a separate section to this end.When defining terms, make a judicious choice between using descriptive or operational definitions.