Of Epenthesis

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THE AMERICAN HERITAGE® DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE, FIFTH EDITION by the Editors of the American Heritage Dictionaries.

THE AMERICAN HERITAGE® DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE, FIFTH EDITION by the Editors of the American Heritage Dictionaries.

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Regular or semiregular epenthesis commonly occurs in languages which use affixes. Vocalic epenthesis typically occurs when words are borrowed from a language that has consonant clusters or syllable codas that are not permitted in the borrowing language, though this is not always the cause.Other terms that are often used synonymously with epenthesis include “insertion,” “intrusion,” and “linking,” although the latter two may also be used to refer only to certain specific kinds of epenthesis.Epenthesis may occur in a variety of environments: intervocalically, interconsonantally, word or syllable initially, and word or syllable finally.Within generative theory, epenthesis is “triggered” or “conditioned” by the presence of specific environments.Such environments may consist of sequences that are disallowed or dispreferred within the language (*XY), and that are prevented from surfacing by the operation of epenthesis (/XY/ surfaces as [XBY]).To describe epenthesis within a given language, it is necessary to adopt a particular theoretical framework; most fundamentally: is epenthesis taken to be a rewrite rule, as exemplified in Chomsky and Halle 1968, or the result of the interaction of a set of ranked constraints, as proposed in Prince and Smolensky 2004?In the notation of a rule-based system: 0 → B /X__Y, where 0 represents the absence of segmental material, and B is the epenthetic segment.One epenthetic vowel is the preceding vowel, found in the illative case ending -(h)*n, e.g. (There is no schwa in Finnish; the term "schwa" is often confused with the epenthetic vowel.) The second one is , connecting stems that have historically been consonant stems to their case endings, e.g. In standard Finnish, consonant clusters may not be broken by epenthetic vowels; foreign words undergo consonant deletion rather than addition of vowels. Even if the word, such as a personal name, is not loaned, a paragogic vowel is needed to connect a consonantal case ending to the word. (Inter)net → netti, or in the case of personal name, Bush -sta → Bushista "about Bush".Finnish has moraic consonants, of which L, H and N are of interest in this case., Ancient Greek ἐπένθεσις - epenthesis, from epi "on" en "in" thesis "putting") is the addition of one or more sounds to a word, especially to the interior of a word. Here there is no epenthesis from a historical perspective, since the a-t is derived from Latin habet (he has), and the t is therefore the original third person verb inflection.Epenthesis may be divided into two types: excrescence (if the sound added is a consonant) and anaptyxis (if the sound added is a vowel). However it is correct to call this epenthesis when viewed synchronically, since the modern basic form of the verb is a, and the psycholinguistic process is therefore the addition of t to the base form.

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