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Children spend too many hours on video games to the exclusion of creative, unstructured play, and they don’t get the amount of physical exercise that contributes to healthy brain development. Topic: Challenging Clients & Treatment Populations | Children/Adolescents | Parenting | Trauma Tags: add adhd | adhd | adhd children | adhd diagnosis | adhd symptoms | case study | child trauma | childhood trauma | hyperactivity | Parenting | post-traumatic stress disorder ptsd | treatments for adhd Thank you for publishing Dr.Pernicano's case study and discussion of issues relevant to the differential diagnosis of ADHD and trauma in young children. Pernicano from my years at Spalding (she was on my dissertation committee) and from the awesome reputation she has in the KYANA area.
In people with the disorder, these studies show that certain brain areas have less activity and blood flow and that certain brain structures are slightly smaller.
These differences in brain activity and structure are mainly evident in the prefrontal cortex, the basal ganglia, and the cerebellum (Castellanos & Swanson, 2002).
"The Story of Fidgety Philip" was an accurate description of a little boy who had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Still published a series of lectures to the Royal College of Physicians in England in which he described a group of impulsive children with significant behavioral problems, caused by a genetic dysfunction and not by poor child rearing children who today would be easily recognized as having ADHD.
Since then, several thousand scientific papers on the disorder have been published, providing information on its nature, course, causes, impairments, and treatments.
It is articles like this that continue to inspire and help my own practice of psychology in working with young children.
I will likely use this article as an introduction to assessment and therapy for parents who suspect their child has ADHD.Such children commonly exhibit troublesome symptoms, including agitation, moodiness, hyperactivity, and distractibility, so I understand why they were referred to me.But what I can’t understand—and have become increasingly emphatic about pursuing—is why professionals diagnose and treat ADHD symptoms without first trying to understand the causes of those symptoms.This loss of self-regulation impairs other important brain functions crucial for maintaining attention, including the ability to defer immediate rewards for later gain (Barkley, 1998a).Behavior of children with ADHD can also include excessive motor activity.It is now known that while the symptoms of the disorders may change as a child ages, many children with ADHD do not grow out of it (Mannuzza, Klein, Bessler, Malloy, & La Padula, 1998).Boys are four to nine times more likely to be diagnosed, and the disorder is found in all cultures, although prevalence figures differ. Researchers do not know ADHD's exact causes, as is the case with many mental and physical health conditions.Where ADHD is concerned, there are a few individuals who do not believe ADHD really exists.As researchers continue to learn more about ADHD, this controversy will be put to rest.In the United States, an estimated 1.46 to 2.46 million children (3 percent to 5 percent of the student population) have ADHD (American Psychiatric Association, 1994; Anderson, et al., 1987; Bird, et al., 1988; Esser, Schmidt, & Woemer, 1990; Pastor & Reuben, 2002; Pelham, Gnagy, Greenslade, & Milich, 1992; Shaffer, et al., 1996; Wolraich, Hannah, Pinock, Baumgaertel, & Brown, 1996).Although for years it was assumed to be a childhood disorder that became visible as early as age 3 and then disappeared with the advent of adolescence, the condition is not limited to children.