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It ranks the search results and shows only the first 1,000 results of any search, based on algorithms that Google changes frequently.The ranking depends on settings that you may be unaware of, such as your language settings or location.
As the Framework for Information Literacy does not specifically address Boolean operators, the authors suggest it should have less prominence in first-year Information Literacy instruction.
Conventional wisdom considers knowledge of Boolean logic a basic information retrieval Information Literacy (IL) skill.
By default, Google Scholar searches in the full text of publications.
Advanced searching allows you to limit your search to specific fields (title, author, a particular journal and date), but you can’t limit your search to e.g.
Anecdotally, the authors have worked at multiple institutions and taught Boolean regularly, generally introducing the concept at the first-year (introductory) level, and building on that in upper-level classes.
Interestingly, while the ACRL Standards specifically mention Boolean, the new Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education only refers to searching (controlled vocabulary, keywords, natural language).
This paper compares the results of Boolean and natural language searching across several databases with searches created from student research questions. Overall, natural search language is at least as good as Boolean searching.
With evidence that students struggle to grasp Boolean searching, and may not use it even after instruction, it could be left out of first-year instruction, freeing up valuable class time to focus on concepts such as question development and source evaluation.
Moreover, the instruction of technical Boolean logic is out of sync with the Framework and its less mechanical, more conceptual approach to IL.
Natural language searching has various definitions. For the purposes of this article, we define natural language as searching in phrases or sentences instead of a structured search query using operators and/or punctuation.