And Sythesis

And Sythesis-31
Growing energy demand and increasing concern for the security of supply of oil tied with the urge to reduce greenhouse gas emissions have led to countries such as the US and European Union (EU) to set targets for replacing petroleum fuels with renewable biofuels.The US Department of Energy has set a goal for supplying 30% of the gasoline demand with biofuels by 2030, and the EU projects 10% of its transportation fuels to be derived from biofuels by 2020 [1].Using lignin as a solid fuel can cover with an excess all steam and electricity requirements of the process making it a very valuable by-product [4].

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The two steps can be done together in a single step called simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF).

Typical biomass-to-ethanol process flowsheet is shown in Figure 1.

The purpose of this review is to provide features and perspectives on processing of biomass into ethanol.

Emphasis is placed on rheology and mixing of biomass in the enzymatic hydrolysis step as one of the forefront issues in the field.

The key steps of the process, pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation, have undergone considerable amount of research and development over the past decades nearing the process to commercialization.

In order for the commercialization to be successful, the process needs to be operated at high dry matter content of biomass, especially in the enzymatic hydrolysis stage that influences ethanol concentration in the final fermentation broth.These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'synthesis.' Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. uses cookies to store information that enables us to optimize our website and make browsing more comfortable for you. / Zhang, Wei *Prices in US$ apply to orders placed in the Americas only.To learn more about the use of cookies, please read our privacy policy. Prices in GBP apply to orders placed in Great Britain only. / Cheng, Yi / Cravotto, Giancarlo / Gruber-Wölfler, Heidrun / Kralisch, Dana / D. Nigam, Krishna / Saha, Basudeb / Serra, Christophe A.Therefore, alternative renewable sources of energy such as lignocellulosic biomass will need to be pursued to provide for the shortage in first-generation biofuels.Biofuels derived from lignocellulose (neutral with respect to production of greenhouse gasses) are second-generation biofuels, research into which has escalated over the past decade with a number of pilot plants operating throughout the world [3], [4], [5].Mediterranean Basin annual production of lignocellulosic residues is around 180 Mton, which can yield 60 Mtoe (Mton oil equivalent) of ethanol [9].Conversion of biomass to ethanol includes (1) pretreatment, (2) enzymatic hydrolysis, (3) fermentation, and (4) distillation [10].Corn (42%) is the predominant crop in North America. Wheat also dominates among the crops in Europe (32%).In total, crop residues could replace 28.6% of global gasoline consumption.


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